Obtain close to actual time operational analytics utilizing Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL zero-ETL integration with Amazon Redshift

“Knowledge is on the middle of each software, course of, and enterprise resolution. When information is used to enhance buyer experiences and drive innovation, it might probably result in enterprise progress,”

Swami Sivasubramanian, VP of Database, Analytics, and Machine Studying at AWS in With a zero-ETL method, AWS helps builders notice near-real-time analytics.

Clients throughout industries have gotten extra information pushed and trying to improve income, scale back value, and optimize their enterprise operations by implementing close to actual time analytics on transactional information, thereby enhancing agility. Based mostly on buyer wants and their suggestions, AWS is investing and steadily progressing in direction of bringing our zero-ETL imaginative and prescient to life in order that builders can focus extra on creating worth from information, as a substitute of getting ready information for evaluation.

Our zero-ETL integration with Amazon Redshift facilitates point-to-point information motion to get it prepared for analytics, synthetic intelligence (AI) and machine studying (ML) utilizing Amazon Redshift on petabytes of knowledge. Inside seconds of transactional information being written into supported AWS databases, zero-ETL seamlessly makes the info out there in Amazon Redshift, eradicating the necessity to construct and preserve complicated information pipelines that carry out extract, remodel, and cargo (ETL) operations.

That will help you give attention to creating worth from information as a substitute of investing undifferentiated time and assets in constructing and managing ETL pipelines between transactional databases and information warehouses, we introduced 4 AWS database zero-ETL integrations with Amazon Redshift at AWS re:Invent 2023:

On this submit, we offer step-by-step steering on the way to get began with close to actual time operational analytics utilizing the Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL zero-ETL integration with Amazon Redshift.

Answer overview

To create a zero-ETL integration, you specify an Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL-Appropriate Version cluster (appropriate with PostgreSQL 15.4 and zero-ETL assist) because the supply, and a Redshift information warehouse because the goal. The mixing replicates information from the supply database into the goal information warehouse.

You need to create Aurora PostgreSQL DB provisioned clusters throughout the Amazon RDS Database Preview Atmosphere and a Redshift provisioned preview cluster or serverless preview workgroup, within the US East (Ohio) AWS Area. For Amazon Redshift, just be sure you select the preview_2023 observe with the intention to use zero-ETL integrations.

The next diagram illustrates the structure carried out on this submit.

The next are the steps wanted to arrange the zero-ETL integration for this resolution. For full getting began guides, confer with Working with Aurora zero-ETL integrations with Amazon Redshift and Working with zero-ETL integrations.


After Step1, you may as well skip Steps 2–4 and instantly begin creating your zero-ETL integration from Step 5, through which case Amazon RDS will present a message about lacking configurations and you’ll select Repair it for me to let Amazon RDS robotically configure the steps.

  1. Configure the Aurora PostgreSQL supply with a custom-made DB cluster parameter group.
  2. Configure the Amazon Redshift Serverless vacation spot with the required useful resource coverage for its namespace.
  3. Replace the Redshift Serverless workgroup to allow case-sensitive identifiers.
  4. Configure the required permissions.
  5. Create the zero-ETL integration.
  6. Create a database from the combination in Amazon Redshift.
  7. Begin analyzing the close to actual time transactional information.

Configure the Aurora PostgreSQL supply with a custom-made DB cluster parameter group

For Aurora PostgreSQL DB clusters, you should create the {custom} parameter group throughout the Amazon RDS Database Preview Atmosphere, within the US East (Ohio) Area. You’ll be able to instantly entry the Amazon RDS Preview Atmosphere.

To create an Aurora PostgreSQL database, full the next steps:

  1. On the Amazon RDS console, select Parameter teams within the navigation pane.
  2. Select Create parameter group.
  3. For Parameter group household, select aurora-postgresql15.
  4. For Kind, select DB Cluster Parameter Group.
  5. For Group title, enter a reputation (for instance, zero-etl-custom-pg-postgres).
  6. Select Create.bdb-3883-image002

Aurora PostgreSQL zero-ETL integrations with Amazon Redshift require particular values for the Aurora DB cluster parameters, which requires enhanced logical replication (aurora.enhanced_logical_replication).

  1. On the Parameter teams web page, choose the newly created parameter group.
  2. On the Actions menu, select Edit.
  3. Set the next Aurora PostgreSQL (aurora-postgresql15 household) cluster parameter settings:
    • rds.logical_replication=1
    • aurora.enhanced_logical_replication=1
    • aurora.logical_replication_backup=0
    • aurora.logical_replication_globaldb=0

Enabling enhanced logical replication (aurora.enhanced_logical_replication) robotically units the REPLICA IDENTITY parameter to FULL, which implies that all column values are written to the write forward log (WAL).

  1. Select Save Modifications.bdb-3883-image003
  2. Select Databases within the navigation pane, then select Create database.
  3. For Engine kind, choose Amazon Aurora.
  4. For Version, choose Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL-Appropriate Version.
  5. For Accessible variations, select Aurora PostgreSQL (appropriate with PostgreSQL 15.4 and Zero-ETL Help).bdb-3883-image006
  6. For Templates, choose Manufacturing.
  7. For DB cluster identifier, enter zero-etl-source-pg.bdb-3883-image007
  8. Underneath Credentials Settings, enter a password for Grasp password or use the choice to robotically generate a password for you.
  9. Within the Occasion configuration part, choose Reminiscence optimized lessons.
  10. Select an appropriate occasion measurement (the default is db.r5.2xlarge).bdb-3883-image008
  11. Underneath Further configuration, for DB cluster parameter group, select the parameter group you created earlier (zero-etl-custom-pg-postgres).bdb-3883-image009
  12. Go away the default settings for the remaining configurations.
  13. Select Create database.

In a couple of minutes, this could spin up an Aurora PostgreSQL cluster, with one author and one reader occasion, with the standing altering from Creating to Accessible. The newly created Aurora PostgreSQL cluster would be the supply for the zero-ETL integration.


The following step is to create a named database in Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL for the zero-ETL integration.

The PostgreSQL useful resource mannequin means that you can create a number of databases inside a cluster. Due to this fact, in the course of the zero-ETL integration creation step, you might want to specify which database you need to use because the supply to your integration.

When organising PostgreSQL, you get three customary databases out of the field: template0, template1, and postgres. Everytime you create a brand new database in PostgreSQL, you’re really basing it off considered one of these three databases in your cluster. The database created throughout Aurora PostgreSQL cluster creation is predicated on template0. The CREATE DATABASE command works by copying an current database, and if not explicitly specified, by default, it copies the usual system database template1. For the named database for zero-ETL integration, the database is required to be created utilizing template1 and never template0. Due to this fact, if an preliminary database title is added underneath Further configuration, that might be created utilizing template0 and can’t be used for zero-ETL integration.

  1. To create a brand new named database utilizing CREATE DATABASE throughout the new Aurora PostgreSQL cluster zero-etl-source-pg, first get the endpoint of the author occasion of the PostgreSQL cluster.bdb-3883-image011
  2. From a terminal or utilizing AWS CloudShell, SSH into the PostgreSQL cluster and run the next instructions to put in psql and create a brand new database zeroetl_db:
    sudo dnf set up postgresql15
    psql –model
    psql -h <RDS Write Occasion Endpoint> -p 5432 -U postgres
    create database zeroetl_db template template1;

Including template template1 is optionally available, as a result of by default, if not talked about, CREATE DATABASE will use template1.

You can even join by way of a consumer and create the database. Consult with Hook up with an Aurora PostgreSQL DB cluster for the choices to connect with the PostgreSQL cluster.

Configure Redshift Serverless as vacation spot

After you create your Aurora PostgreSQL supply database cluster, you configure a Redshift goal information warehouse. The information warehouse should adjust to the next necessities:

  • Created in preview (for Aurora PostgreSQL sources solely)
  • Makes use of an RA3 node kind (ra3.16xlarge, ra3.4xlarge, or ra3.xlplus) with not less than two nodes, or Redshift Serverless
  • Encrypted (if utilizing a provisioned cluster)

For this submit, we create and configure a Redshift Serverless workgroup and namespace because the goal information warehouse, following these steps:

  1. On the Amazon Redshift console, select Serverless dashboard within the navigation pane.

As a result of the zero-ETL integration for Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL to Amazon Redshift has been launched in preview (not for manufacturing functions), you might want to create the goal information warehouse in a preview atmosphere.

  1. Select Create preview workgroup.

Step one is to configure the Redshift Serverless workgroup.

  1. For Workgroup title, enter a reputation (for instance, zero-etl-target-rs-wg).bdb-3883-image014
  2. Moreover, you possibly can select the capability, to restrict the compute assets of the info warehouse. The capability could be configured in increments of 8, from 8–512 RPUs. For this submit, set this to 8 RPUs.
  3. Select Subsequent.bdb-3883-image016

Subsequent, you might want to configure the namespace of the info warehouse.

  1. Choose Create a brand new namespace.
  2. For Namespace, enter a reputation (for instance, zero-etl-target-rs-ns).
  3. Select Subsequent.bdb-3883-image017
  4. Select Create workgroup.
  5. After the workgroup and namespace are created, select Namespace configurations within the navigation pane and open the namespace configuration.
  6. On the Useful resource coverage tab, select Add licensed principals.

A certified principal identifies the consumer or position that may create zero-ETL integrations into the info warehouse.


  1. For IAM principal ARN or AWS account ID, you possibly can enter both the ARN of the AWS consumer or position, or the ID of the AWS account that you just need to grant entry to create zero-ETL integrations. (An account ID is saved as an ARN.)
  2. Select Save modifications.bdb-3883-image019

After the Licensed principal is configured, you might want to enable the supply database to replace your Redshift information warehouse. Due to this fact, you should add the supply database as a licensed integration supply to the namespace.

  1. Select Add licensed integration supply.bdb-3883-image020
  2. For Licensed supply ARN, enter the ARN of the Aurora PostgreSQL cluster, as a result of it’s the supply of the zero-ETL integration.

You’ll be able to acquire the ARN of the Aurora PostgreSQL cluster on the Amazon RDS console, the Configuration tab underneath Amazon Useful resource Title.

  1. Select Save modifications.bdb-3883-image021

Replace the Redshift Serverless workgroup to allow case-sensitive identifiers

Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL is case delicate by default, and case sensitivity is disabled on all provisioned clusters and Redshift Serverless workgroups. For the combination to achieve success, the case sensitivity parameter enable_case_sensitive_identifier should be enabled for the info warehouse.

As a way to modify the enable_case_sensitive_identifier parameter in a Redshift Serverless workgroup, you might want to use the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI), as a result of the Amazon Redshift console doesn’t at the moment assist modifying Redshift Serverless parameter values. Run the next command to replace the parameter:

aws redshift-serverless update-workgroup --workgroup-name zero-etl-target-rs-wg --config-parameters parameterKey=enable_case_sensitive_identifier,parameterValue=true --region us-east-2

A easy method to connect with the AWS CLI is to make use of CloudShell, which is a browser-based shell that gives command line entry to the AWS assets and instruments instantly from a browser. The next screenshot illustrates the way to run the command within the CloudShell.


Configure required permissions

To create a zero-ETL integration, your consumer or position should have an connected identity-based coverage with the suitable AWS Id and Entry Administration (IAM) permissions. An AWS account proprietor can configure required permissions for consumer or roles who might create zero-ETL integrations. The pattern coverage permits the related principal to carry out following actions:

  • Create zero-ETL integrations for the supply Aurora DB cluster.
  • View and delete all zero-ETL integrations.
  • Create inbound integrations into the goal information warehouse. Amazon Redshift has a distinct ARN format for provisioned and serverless:
  • Provisioned clusterarn:aws:redshift:{area}:{account-id}:namespace:namespace-uuid
  • Serverlessarn:aws:redshift-serverless:{area}:{account-id}:namespace/namespace-uuid

This permission isn’t required if the identical account owns the Redshift information warehouse and this account is a licensed principal for that information warehouse.

Full the next steps to configure the permissions:

  1. On the IAM console, select Insurance policies within the navigation pane.
  2. Select Create coverage.
  3. Create a brand new coverage known as rds-integrations utilizing the next JSON. For the Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL preview, all ARNs and actions throughout the Amazon RDS Database Preview Atmosphere have -preview appended to the service namespace. Due to this fact, within the following coverage, as a substitute of rds, you might want to use rds-preview. For instance, rds-preview:CreateIntegration.
    "Model": "2012-10-17",
    "Assertion": [{
        "Effect": "Allow",
        "Action": [
        "Useful resource": [
        "Impact": "Enable",
        "Motion": [
        "Useful resource": ["*"]
        "Impact": "Enable",
        "Motion": [
        "Useful resource": [
        "Impact": "Enable",
        "Motion": [
        "Useful resource": [

  1. Connect the coverage you created to your IAM consumer or position permissions.

Create the zero-ETL integration

To create the zero-ETL integration, full the next steps:

  1. On the Amazon RDS console, select Zero-ETL integrations within the navigation pane.
  2. Select Create zero-ETL integration.bdb-3883-image023
  3. For Integration identifier, enter a reputation, for instance zero-etl-demo.
  4. Select Subsequent.bdb-3883-image025
  5. For Supply database, select Browse RDS databases.bdb-3883-image026
  6. Choose the supply database zero-etl-source-pg and select Select.
  7. For Named database, enter the title of the brand new database created within the Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL (zeroetl-db).
  8. Select Subsequent.bdb-3883-image028
  9. Within the Goal part, for AWS account, choose Use the present account.
  10. For Amazon Redshift information warehouse, select Browse Redshift information warehouses.bdb-3883-image029

We focus on the Specify a distinct account possibility later on this part.

  1. Choose the Redshift Serverless vacation spot namespace (zero-etl-target-rs-ns), and select Select.bdb-3883-image031
  2. Add tags and encryption, if relevant, and select Subsequent.bdb-3883-image032
  3. Confirm the combination title, supply, goal, and different settings, and select Create zero-ETL integration.

You’ll be able to select the combination on the Amazon RDS console to view the main points and monitor its progress. It takes about half-hour to alter the standing from Creating to Energetic, relying on measurement of the dataset already out there within the supply.



To specify a goal Redshift information warehouse that’s in one other AWS account, you should create a job that permits customers within the present account to entry assets within the goal account. For extra info, confer with Offering entry to an IAM consumer in one other AWS account that you just personal.

Create a job within the goal account with the next permissions:

         "Useful resource":[

The position should have the next belief coverage, which specifies the goal account ID. You are able to do this by creating a job with a trusted entity as an AWS account ID in one other account.

            "AWS": "arn:aws:iam::{external-account-id}:root"

The next screenshot illustrates creating this on the IAM console.


Then, whereas creating the zero-ETL integration, for Specify a distinct account, select the vacation spot account ID and the title of the position you created.

Create a database from the combination in Amazon Redshift

To create your database, full the next steps:

  1. On the Redshift Serverless dashboard, navigate to the zero-etl-target-rs-ns namespace.
  2. Select Question information to open the question editor v2.
  3. Hook up with the Redshift Serverless information warehouse by selecting Create connection.
  4. Get hold of the integration_id from the svv_integration system desk:
    SELECT integration_id FROM svv_integration; -- copy this consequence, use within the subsequent sql

  5. Use the integration_id from the earlier step to create a brand new database from the combination. You need to additionally embrace a reference to the named database throughout the cluster that you just specified whenever you created the combination.
    CREATE DATABASE aurora_pg_zetl FROM INTEGRATION '<consequence from above>' DATABASE zeroetl_db;


The mixing is now full, and a complete snapshot of the supply will replicate as is within the vacation spot. Ongoing modifications can be synced in close to actual time.

Analyze the close to actual time transactional information

Now you can begin analyzing the close to actual time information from the Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL supply to the Amazon Redshift goal:

  1. Hook up with your supply Aurora PostgreSQL database. On this demo, we use psql to connect with Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL:
    psql -h <amazon_aurora_postgres_writer_endpoint> -p 5432 -d zeroetl_db -U postgres


  1. Create a pattern desk with a major key. Guarantee that all tables to be replicated from supply to focus on have a major key. Tables with no major key can’t be replicated to the goal.

  1. Insert dummy information into the nation desk and confirm if the info is correctly loaded:
INSERT INTO nation VALUES (1, 'USA', 1 , 'u.s.a. of america');
SELECT * FROM nation;


This pattern information ought to now be replicated in Amazon Redshift.

Analyze the supply information within the vacation spot

On the Redshift Serverless dashboard, open question editor v2 and hook up with the database aurora_pg_zetl you created earlier.

Run the next question to validate the profitable replication of the supply information into Amazon Redshift:

SELECT * FROM aurora_pg_etl.public.nation;


You can even use the next question to validate the preliminary snapshot or ongoing change information seize (CDC) exercise:

SELECT * FROM sys_integration_activity ORDER BY last_commit_timestamp desc;



There are a number of choices to acquire metrics on the efficiency and standing of the Aurora PostgreSQL zero-ETL integration with Amazon Redshift.

In case you navigate to the Amazon Redshift console, you possibly can select Zero-ETL integrations within the navigation pane. You’ll be able to select the zero-ETL integration you need and show Amazon CloudWatch metrics associated to the combination. These metrics are additionally instantly out there in CloudWatch.


For every integration, there are two tabs with info out there:

  • Integration metrics – Reveals metrics such because the variety of tables efficiently replicated and lag particulars
  • Desk statistics – Reveals particulars about every desk replicated from Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL to Amazon Redshift

Along with the CloudWatch metrics, you possibly can question the next system views, which give details about the integrations:

Clear up

While you delete a zero-ETL integration, your transactional information isn’t deleted from Aurora or Amazon Redshift, however Aurora doesn’t ship new information to Amazon Redshift.

To delete a zero-ETL integration, full the next steps:

  1. On the Amazon RDS console, select Zero-ETL integrations within the navigation pane.
  2. Choose the zero-ETL integration that you just need to delete and select Delete.
  3. To verify the deletion, enter affirm and select Delete.


On this submit, we defined how one can arrange the zero-ETL integration from Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL to Amazon Redshift, a characteristic that reduces the hassle of sustaining information pipelines and allows close to actual time analytics on transactional and operational information.

To be taught extra about zero-ETL integration, confer with Working with Aurora zero-ETL integrations with Amazon Redshift and Limitations.

Concerning the Authors

Raks KhareRaks Khare is an Analytics Specialist Options Architect at AWS primarily based out of Pennsylvania. He helps prospects architect information analytics options at scale on the AWS platform.

Juan Luis Polo Garzon is an Affiliate Specialist Options Architect at AWS, specialised in analytics workloads. He has expertise serving to prospects design, construct and modernize their cloud-based analytics options. Outdoors of labor, he enjoys travelling, outdoor and mountaineering, and attending to dwell music occasions.

Sushmita Barthakur is a Senior Options Architect at Amazon Internet Companies, supporting Enterprise prospects architect their workloads on AWS. With a robust background in Knowledge Analytics and Knowledge Administration, she has in depth expertise serving to prospects architect and construct Enterprise Intelligence and Analytics Options, each on-premises and the cloud. Sushmita is predicated out of Tampa, FL and enjoys touring, studying and enjoying tennis.

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