Construct Spark Structured Streaming functions with the open supply connector for Amazon Kinesis Information Streams

Apache Spark is a strong massive information engine used for large-scale information analytics. Its in-memory computing makes it nice for iterative algorithms and interactive queries. You should utilize Apache Spark to course of streaming information from a wide range of streaming sources, together with Amazon Kinesis Information Streams to be used circumstances like clickstream evaluation, fraud detection, and extra. Kinesis Information Streams is a serverless streaming information service that makes it simple to seize, course of, and retailer information streams at any scale.

With the brand new open supply Amazon Kinesis Information Streams Connector for Spark Structured Streaming, you need to use the newer Spark Information Sources API. It additionally helps enhanced fan-out for devoted learn throughput and quicker stream processing. On this put up, we deep dive into the interior particulars of the connector and present you tips on how to use it to devour and produce information from and to Kinesis Information Streams utilizing Amazon EMR.

Introducing the Kinesis Information Streams connector for Spark Structured Streaming

The Kinesis Information Streams connector for Spark Structured Streaming is an open supply connector that helps each provisioned and On-Demand capability modes supplied by Kinesis Information Streams. The connector is constructed utilizing the newest Spark Information Sources API V2, which makes use of Spark optimizations. Beginning with Amazon EMR 7.1, the connector comes pre-packaged on Amazon EMR on Amazon EKS, Amazon EMR on Amazon EC2, and Amazon EMR Serverless, so that you don’t must construct or obtain any packages. For utilizing it with different Apache Spark platforms, the connector is offered as a public JAR file that may be instantly referred to whereas submitting a Spark Structured Streaming job. Moreover, you possibly can obtain and construct the connector from the GitHub repo.

Kinesis Information Streams helps two varieties of shoppers: shared throughput and devoted throughput. With shared throughput, 2 Mbps of learn throughput per shard is shared throughout shoppers. With devoted throughput, also referred to as enhanced fan-out, 2 Mbps of learn throughput per shard is devoted to every client. This new connector helps each client varieties out of the field with none further coding, offering you the flexibleness to devour information out of your streams based mostly in your necessities. By default, this connector makes use of a shared throughput client, however you possibly can configure it to make use of enhanced fan-out within the configuration properties.

You too can use the connector as a sink connector to supply information to a Kinesis information stream. The configuration parameters for utilizing the connector as a supply and sink differ—for extra info, see Kinesis Supply Configuration. The connector additionally helps a number of storage choices, together with Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Easy Service for Storage (Amazon S3), and HDFS, to retailer checkpoints and supply continuity.

For eventualities the place a Kinesis information stream is deployed in an AWS producer account and the Spark Structured Streaming utility is in a special AWS client account, you need to use the connector to do cross-account processing. This requires further Identification and Entry Administration (IAM) belief insurance policies to permit the Spark Structured Streaming utility within the client account to imagine the position within the producer account.

You also needs to contemplate reviewing the safety configuration together with your safety groups based mostly in your information safety necessities.

How the connector works

Consuming information from Kinesis Information Streams utilizing the connector includes a number of steps. The next structure diagram reveals the interior particulars of how the connector works. A Spark Structured Streaming utility consumes information from a Kinesis information stream supply and produces information to a different Kinesis information stream.

A Kinesis information stream consists of set of shards. A shard is a uniquely recognized sequence of knowledge information in a stream and gives a hard and fast unit of capability. The overall capability of the stream is the sum of the capability of all of its shards.

A Spark utility consists of a driver and a set of executor processes. The Spark driver acts as a coordinator, and the duties operating in executors are chargeable for producing and consuming information to and from shards.

The answer workflow consists of the next steps:

  1. Internally, by default, Structured Streaming queries are processed utilizing a micro-batch processing engine, which processes information streams as a sequence of small batch jobs. Initially of a micro-batch run, the driving force makes use of the Kinesis Information Streams ListShard API to find out the newest description of all obtainable shards. The connector exposes a parameter (kinesis.describeShardInterval) to configure the interval between two successive ListShard API calls.
  2. The motive force then determines the beginning place in every shard. If the appliance is a brand new job, the beginning place of every shard is decided by kinesis.startingPosition. If it’s a restart of an current job, it’s learn from final file metadata checkpoint from storage (for this put up, DynamoDB) and ignores kinesis.startingPosition.
  3. Every shard is mapped to at least one activity in an executor, which is chargeable for studying information. The Spark utility robotically creates an equal variety of duties based mostly on the variety of shards and distributes it throughout the executors.
  4. The duties in an executor use both polling mode (shared) or push mode (enhanced fan-out) to get information information from the beginning place for a shard.
  5. Spark duties operating within the executors write the processed information to the information sink. On this structure, we use the Kinesis Information Streams sink for instance how the connector writes again to the stream. Executors can write to a couple of Kinesis Information Streams output shard.
  6. On the finish of every activity, the corresponding executor course of saves the metadata (checkpoint) concerning the final file learn for every shard within the offset storage (for this put up, DynamoDB). This info is utilized by the driving force within the development of the following micro-batch.

Resolution overview

The next diagram reveals an instance structure of tips on how to use the connector to learn from one Kinesis information stream and write to a different.

On this structure, we use the Amazon Kinesis Information Generator (KDG) to generate pattern streaming information (random occasions per nation) to a Kinesis Information Streams supply. We begin an interactive Spark Structured Streaming session and devour information from the Kinesis information stream, after which write to a different Kinesis information stream.

We use Spark Structured Streaming to rely occasions per micro-batch window. These occasions for every nation are being consumed from Kinesis Information Streams. After the rely, we will see the outcomes.


To get began, comply with the directions within the GitHub repo. You want the next stipulations:

After you deploy the answer utilizing the AWS CDK, you should have the next assets:

  • An EMR cluster with the Kinesis Spark connector put in
  • A Kinesis Information Streams supply
  • A Kinesis Information Streams sink

Create your Spark Structured Streaming utility

After the deployment is full, you possibly can entry the EMR main node to start out a Spark utility and write your Spark Structured Streaming logic.

As we talked about earlier, you employ the brand new open supply Kinesis Spark connector to devour information from Amazon EMR. Yow will discover the connector code on the GitHub repo together with examples on tips on how to construct and arrange the connector in Spark.

On this put up, we use Amazon EMR 7.1, the place the connector is natively obtainable. In the event you’re not utilizing Amazon EMR 7.1 and above, you need to use the connector by operating the next code:

cd /usr/lib/spark/jars 
sudo wget
sudo chmod 755 spark-streaming-sql-kinesis-connector_2.12-1.2.1.jar

Full the next steps:

  1. On the Amazon EMR console, navigate to the emr-spark-kinesis cluster.
  2. On the Cases tab, choose the first occasion and select the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) occasion ID.

You’re redirected to the Amazon EC2 console.

  1. On the Amazon EC2 console, choose the first occasion and select Join.
  2. Use Session Supervisor, a functionality of AWS Methods Supervisor, to hook up with the occasion.
  3. As a result of the consumer that’s used to attach is the ssm-user, we have to swap to the Hadoop consumer:

  4. Begin a Spark shell both utilizing Scala or Python to interactively construct a Spark Structured Streaming utility to devour information from a Kinesis information stream.

For this put up, we use Python for writing to a stream utilizing a PySpark shell in Amazon EMR.

  1. Begin the PySpark shell by coming into the command pyspark.

As a result of you have already got the connector put in within the EMR cluster, now you can create the Kinesis supply.

  1. Create the Kinesis supply with the next code:
    kinesis = spark.readStream.format("aws-kinesis") 
        .choice("kinesis.area", "<aws-region>") 
        .choice("kinesis.streamName", "kinesis-source") 
        .choice("kinesis.consumerType", "GetRecords") 
        .choice("kinesis.endpointUrl", "https://kinesis.<aws-region>") 
        .choice("kinesis.startingposition", "LATEST") 

For creating the Kinesis supply, the next parameters are required:

  • Identify of the connector – We use the connector title aws-kinesis
  • kinesis.area – The AWS Area of the Kinesis information stream you’re consuming
  • kinesis.consumerType – Use GetRecords (commonplace client) or SubscribeToShard (enhanced fan-out client)
  • kinesis.endpointURL – The Regional Kinesis endpoint (for extra particulars, see Service endpoints)
  • kinesis.startingposition – Select LATEST, TRIM_HORIZON, or AT_TIMESTAMP (check with ShardIteratorType)

For utilizing an enhanced fan-out client, further parameters are wanted, corresponding to the patron title. The extra configuration will be discovered within the connector’s GitHub repo.

kinesis_efo = spark 
.choice("kinesis.area", "<aws-region>") 
.choice("kinesis.streamName", "kinesis-source") 
.choice("kinesis.consumerType", "SubscribeToShard") 
.choice("kinesis.consumerName", "efo-consumer") 
.choice("kinesis.endpointUrl", "https://kinesis.<aws-region>") 
.choice("kinesis.startingposition", "LATEST") 

Deploy the Kinesis Information Generator

Full the next steps to deploy the KDG and begin producing information:

  1. Select Launch Stack:
    launch stack 1

You would possibly want to vary your Area when deploying. Guarantee that the KDG is launched in the identical Area as the place you deployed the answer.

  1. For the parameters Username and Password, enter the values of your selection. Be aware these values to make use of later whenever you log in to the KDG.
  2. When the template has completed deploying, go to the Outputs tab of the stack and find the KDG URL.
  3. Log in to the KDG, utilizing the credentials you set when launching the CloudFormation template.
  4. Specify your Area and information stream title, and use the next template to generate check information:
        "id": {{random.quantity(100)}},
        "information": "{{random.arrayElement(
        "date": "{{"YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss")}}"

  5. Return to Methods Supervisor to proceed working with the Spark utility.
  6. To have the ability to apply transformations based mostly on the fields of the occasions, you first must outline the schema for the occasions:
    from pyspark.sql.varieties import *
    pythonSchema = StructType() 
     .add("id", LongType()) 
     .add("information", StringType()) 
     .add("date", TimestampType())

  7. Run the next the command to devour information from Kinesis Information Streams:
    from pyspark.sql.capabilities import *
    occasions= kinesis 
      .selectExpr("solid (information as STRING) jsonData") 
      .choose(from_json("jsonData", pythonSchema).alias("occasions")) 

  8. Use the next code for the Kinesis Spark connector sink:
        .selectExpr("CAST(id AS STRING) as partitionKey","information","date") 
        .choice("kinesis.area", "<aws-region>") 
        .choice("kinesis.streamName", "kinesis-sink") 
        .choice("kinesis.endpointUrl", "https://kinesis.<aws-region>") 
        .choice("checkpointLocation", "/kinesisCheckpoint") 

You’ll be able to view the information within the Kinesis Information Streams console.

  1. On the Kinesis Information Streams console, navigate to kinesis-sink.
  2. On the Information viewer tab, select a shard and a beginning place (for this put up, we use Newest) and select Get information.

You’ll be able to see the information despatched, as proven within the following screenshot. Kinesis Information Streams makes use of base64 encoding by default, so that you would possibly see textual content with unreadable characters.

Clear up

Delete the next CloudFormation stacks created throughout this deployment to delete all of the provisioned assets:

  • EmrSparkKinesisStack
  • Kinesis-Information-Generator-Cognito-Consumer-SparkEFO-Weblog

In the event you created any further assets throughout this deployment, delete them manually.


On this put up, we mentioned the open supply Kinesis Information Streams connector for Spark Structured Streaming. It helps the newer Information Sources API V2 and Spark Structured Streaming for constructing streaming functions. The connector additionally allows high-throughput consumption from Kinesis Information Streams with enhanced fan-out by offering devoted throughput as much as 2 Mbps per shard per client. With this connector, now you can effortlessly construct high-throughput streaming functions with Spark Structured Streaming.

The Kinesis Spark connector is open supply beneath the Apache 2.0 license on GitHub. To get began, go to the GitHub repo.

In regards to the Authors

Idan Maizlits is a Senior Product Supervisor on the Amazon Kinesis Information Streams crew at Amazon Internet Companies. Idan loves partaking with prospects to find out about their challenges with real-time information and to assist them obtain their enterprise targets. Exterior of labor, he enjoys spending time along with his household exploring the outside and cooking.

Subham Rakshit is a Streaming Specialist Options Architect for Analytics at AWS based mostly within the UK. He works with prospects to design and construct search and streaming information platforms that assist them obtain their enterprise goal. Exterior of labor, he enjoys spending time fixing jigsaw puzzles along with his daughter.

Francisco Morillo is a Streaming Options Architect at AWS. Francisco works with AWS prospects serving to them design real-time analytics architectures utilizing AWS providers, supporting Amazon MSK and AWS’s managed providing for Apache Flink.

Umesh Chaudhari is a Streaming Options Architect at AWS. He works with prospects to design and construct real-time information processing techniques. He has in depth working expertise in software program engineering, together with architecting, designing, and growing information analytics techniques. Exterior of labor, he enjoys touring, studying, and watching motion pictures.

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